Two-dimensional barcodes (2D code) allow the information density per area to be significantly increased compared to a one-dimensional barcode (1D code). In a data matrix code, for example, the information is coded very compactly on a square or rectangular area as a pattern of dots. When a data matrix code is read, two different bar widths are no longer defined clearly in their order, as in a one-dimensional barcode, but rather the arrangement of the equal-sized dots within the frame and in the matrix grid. The dots are white or black dots connected to each other or round dots with gaps in between. Further 2D codes: QR code, semacode, bee tag, vericode and VS code.
Classification of all items in a range by specific criteria, e.g. sales quantity or access frequency. A items have high sales quantities or access frequency, C items low ones. The thresholds between ABC groups are defined for each individual case.
Part of the adhesive bond which carries the self-adhesive material. Silicon is usually applied as a barrier layer so that the label can be removed from the base more easily.
Label material which surrounds the actual self-adhesive label
Self-adhesive with relatively low final adhesion. Adheres strongly to the adhered surface, but can be removed again within a short period.
In self-adhesive labels, this refers to the condition under which the labels can be removed from a substrate.
Identifies the mechanical resistance of a label surface, depending on its properties, the type of wearing surface, the rubbing pressure and the duration of the exposure.
The release value is determined by the adhesive and the siliconisation in particular. Especially when the labels are dispensed mechanically, easier repellance has been proven in the past. It is measured as the separating force needed to pull off the silicone paper behind the adhesive-coated upper material.
An artificial silk for textile labelling, such as on mattresses.
Very transparent adhesive with good resistance against UV radiation and high temperatures. Acrylic adhesives usually have lower initial adhesion than rubber adhesives.
Name for how two different materials stick together or for the interaction of the adhesive with the substrate to be adhered to.
This film adheres to absolutely smooth surfaces (e.g. glass, painted metal) without adhesive
A system used to map complex logistical structures in a supply chain or a company network in real time.
Name for reading devices which can work on multiple frequencies. See also 'Reader'
Automatic Identification Manufacturers. Industry association for manufacturers of RFID systems.
RFID transponders with their own battery-operated power supply are called active transponders. There are transponders with replaceable batteries and ones whose batteries are in a sealed unit. The latter are called modular active transponders.
The ALOHA protocol is used to read information from RFID transponders. The reading device requests that all transponders in its range respond after a random time. If this results in collisions, the process is repeated until the information from all transponders has been read. The ALOHA protocol makes it possible to read off a lot of RFID labels reliably within a small space.
Either a thin aluminium foil laminated onto paper or a pure aluminium foil. Both are used as an upper material for self-adhesive products.
An antenna generally consists of a conductor which operates as a sending and receiving unit. It ensures that radio signals are transmitted between the sender or receiver and the medium (air).
If multiple transponders are addressed by a reading device at the same time, they answer at the same time, which can result in a data collision upon receipt. An anti-collision process is used to prevent this. In this, the transponders are addressed individually through a special process.
See Advanced planning and scheduling system.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Automatic forklift guidance system (Staplerleitsystem)
A parameter which shows how many points can be created on a specific area. Printer resolution is measured in dpi and can be different in the X and Y directions, depending on the type of printer. In scanners, however, resolution (known as optical resolution) is a parameter for the readability of a barcode. In code pens, distance scanners and slot readers, the optical resolution (related to a standard distance), can be for example 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm or 0.38 mm
Reduction in colour brilliance, often caused by the extended influence of UV radiation.
The printing ink runs along the paper fibres (especially at the edges), making the print image and characters appear uneven.
Automatic identification. Auto ID systems offer the option of providing information about products and goods. Example: barcode.
Automatic system for storing units with small volumes, usually containers, with small to medium weights.
Back-end systems are information technology components which support basic operational applications, e.g. for goods and warehouse management.
Method of communication between reading devices and passive transponders. The transponder reflects the waves from the reading device and modulates its information into these reflected waves.
The maximum width of the material line which can be processed in a production machine.
Depiction of numbers (e.g. item numbers) using a system of bars, suitable to be read directly into a computer.
The information density of a barcode is given with the unit cpi (= characters pro inch). In Germany, the density is often expressed in 'space needed per character', i.e. in millimetres/character. To fit a barcode into the barcode box when there is little space, high density (i.e. as much information (characters) as possible per unit of length) is necessary. If the barcode is to be read from a distance, it is better to use a barcode with a lower density.
A batch is a compilation of multiple orders into an ordered mass (list) of orders. In contrast to interactive processing by programmes, the orders combined in a batch are processed without interruption by a single user input. All data needed to execute the orders must therefore be present at the start of the batch run.
Operational data acquisition (Betriebsdatenerfassung)
Name for active transponders which 'wake up' during defined intervals and transmit information.
Particular type of packaging, for filling, e.g. lattice box.
Another term for a reusable container system. The container generally moves through multiple stages.
The IT system gives the employee all the information he needs for picking, such as via a picking display. He needs no paper for the picking process. The picking displays, such as monitors, wireless terminals or displays, may be placed statically on the shelves or mobile on a picking vehicle.
The bleed border system prevents adhesive particles from leaking during the printing process, thus protecting mechanical parts such as the drum and print cylinder from contamination from adhesive deposits.
For stamping logos or creases in elaborate products. Contours and shapes can be stamped positively into the paper.
A blocker or blocker tag is intended to prevent or disrupt readings from transponders. To do this, an overactive transponder could be used, for example, which responds to all requests and thus disrupts the reading of the information.
Printing technique which is a relief printing process, because the printing parts of the print form are raised. (cf. printing process)
Computer-aided shipping system
A chemical coating for paper which makes carbon copying possible.
Type of paper which gains a high sheen to matt surface when a coating mass is applied, making it suitable for premium multicolour printing.
A work station where unidentifiable loading aids or item units are processed. In the conventional sense, these are goods whose barcodes cannot be read by the scanner station used. Increasingly, weight and image analysis are being used to identify units and to check the picking or sorting.
System with a range of 0.1 to 1 cm. In these systems, the transponder is plugged into or laid onto the reading device. Close coupling systems generally work with frequencies below 10 MHz. Standard ISO 10536 describes the mechanical and electrical properties of close coupling chip cards.
An RFID-based identification system which can be used in a company. Because it is used exclusively within a company, public standards do not need to be adhered to. A closed container cycle is an example of a closed loop system.
Name for the four basic colours in four-colour printing. Also called euroscale. The letters stand for: C= cyan, M= magenta, Y= yellow, K= black
Numerical code with 6 additional special characters. 0 – 9, –, $,:, /,, + can be represented. Each character consists of 7 elements (4 bars and 3 spaces). 2 or 3 wide and 4 or 5 narrow elements are used to show the code. The spaces between the characters bear no information. Print ratio V: narrow element:wide element V R : 1:2.25, max. V= 1:3.
Code 128 allows the entire ASCII character set to be represented without character combinations (see advanced code 39 and 93). However, it cannot be assumed that code 128 can depict the entire ASCII character set directly with its character set. There are three distinct character sets, A, B, and C, which are used depending on the problem to be solved. These character sets can also be mixed. To represent the entire ASCII character set, start character A or B is needed in conjunction with a special character from code 128. Each character consists of 11 modules, divided into 3 bars and 3 spaces. The bars always consist of an even number of modules (even parity) and the spaces of an odd number of modules. The stop character is the exception and has 13 modules, consisting of 11 modules and a limiting bar with 2 modules.
Numerical code, 0-9 representable. This code consists of 2 wide and 3 narrow bars. Print ratio V: narrow bar/wide bar V=1: 2 to 1: 3. The spaces contain no information.
Numerical code, 0-9 representable. This code consists of 2 wide and 3 narrow bars, plus 2 wide and 3 narrow spaces. Print ratio V: narrow element:wide element V= 1:2 to 1:3. The first digit is depicted with 5 bars, the 2nd with the spaces which immediately follow the bars of the first digit.
Alphanumerical code. 0 - 9, 26 letters, 9 special characters representable. Each character consists of 9 elements (5 bars and 4 spaces). 3 of the elements are wide and 6 narrow, the with exception of the representation of special characters. The space between the characters holds no information. Print ratio V: narrow element:wide element V=1:2 to 1:3. If the narrow element is smaller than 0.5 mm: narrow element:wide element V=1:2.25 up to max. 1:3.
Paperless dispatch and addressing of piece goods and palette orders.
The aim is to achieve a constant supply of goods along the entire logistics chain, from the manufacturer to the dealer. Replenishment is triggered by actual demand or from the predicted requirements of the branches or distribution centres.
Electronic process for plastic films, in which the film line is moved past a spray electrode by earthed metal rollers (creation of polar structure). The film can now be printed, the ink stays on the label.
See customer relationship management
CRM is used to build up relationship management for the customers which attempts to answer the following questions: Which customers are the most profitable? Which services need to be offered to keep their loyalty long-term? How can new customers be acquired with the aim of long-term customer retention?
By using a two-dimensional data matrix code (2D code), the information density per area can be increased significantly compared to one-dimensional barcodes (1D code). In a data matrix code, the information is coded very compactly in a square or rectangular areas as a grid of dots. When a data matrix code is read, two different bar widths are no longer defined clearly in their order, as in a one-dimensional barcode, but rather the arrangement of the equal-sized dots within the frame and in the matrix grid.
A data warehouse is an extensive, user-orientated central database which supports management in information procurement, analysis and planning.
Data sharing allows access to shared information which can be saved centrally.
Detachment of a material in layers in a direction parallel to the surface
Behaviour of a material in relation to the consistency of its dimensions in length and width under influences such as temperature, moisture, solvents etc.
Labels for electronic anti-theft applications are destroyed with a deactivator before leaving the shop. To do this, the labels have an oscillating circuit consisting of a coil and a capacitor. The capacitor is equipped with special planned short circuit points, called dimples. The deactivator uses a strong magnetic field to destroy the capacitor at the dimples and thus upset the oscillating circuit. The EAS label is then no longer recognised by the detectors.
Barcode in which each character begins and ends with a bar. The separator space is not part of the barcode.
Substance system in which a substance is distributed extremely finely throughout a dispersion medium. In practice, watery dispersions are often used in the form of lacquers, adhesives or inks.
Palettes which are used both for transport and for presenting the goods for sale in retail.
Name for a sandwich bond
The tearing resistance is defined by the force needed to further tear a cut test label under defined conditions.
Abbreviation for 'European article number'. An 8 or 13 digit, worldwide unique, machine-readable marking number. The EAN can be used as a reference to the internal numbering system along the entire supply chain, from the supplier to the end customer, and thus used across companies for communication and control of the flow of goods.
Unwanted detachment of label corners from the separating material
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport. Electronic data interchange (see EDI) with sector-neutral standards.
ECR is a customer-oriented, holistic way of viewing the process chain from the supplier, via trade, to the point of sale, in which all agents cooperate. The aim is customer orientation and optimisation of the entire process chain.
Electronic security for items and against theft. EAS works with 1-bit transponders. These transponders or labels deliver only the information 'Transponder present' or 'Transponder absent'.
Data service for paperless exchange of information within and between customers, suppliers and service providers, which is defined by specific data formats and increasingly takes place via the Internet.
The EPC data standard is used for the unique identification of products and product types by individually allocated serial numbers. It also takes into account today's standards, such as the EAN and NVE.
Describes a bar or space
Umbrella term for planning, controlling, executing and monitoring the flow of goods, information and money in connection with e-business activities (Internet).
An emulsion is a dispersion in which a liquid in the form of tiny droplets is distributed throughout another liquid with which it cannot mix. Oil-in-water emulsions are often used in coating processes.
Adhesive strength which an adhesive layer of a label finally achieves to the surface of a body under defined practical conditions.
Includes all activities from the customer order to delivery to the customer.
System for company-wide optimisation of all processes required to fulfil the company goal, i.e. for mapping and controlling flows of information and payment and physical flows.
Number of correct readings in the first reading attempt, divided by the number of reading attempts.
May occur with (old) adhesives when a label is pulled from the base material.
The decoded information is not the same as the content of the printed barcode
The physicist Michael Faraday discovered that the inside of an electrical conductor has no charge. A metal container thus works like a shield, so that RFID transponders in metal containers cannot be read.
Property of a material, retaining its original colour even under external influences.
A conductor loop (antenna) is surrounded by a magnetic field. This field migrates constantly into an electromagnetic field. From a specific distance, the electromagnetic field starts to come away from the antenna and diffuses as an electromagnetic wave in the space. From this calculation - calculated as Lambda/2pi - a far field is present. Inductive coupling between the reading device and the transponder is possible up to a distance of Lambda/2pi. This range is called near field.
Umbrella term for non-coloured coatings, such as lacquering.
Flat, conducting antenna, usually made from a metal plate or film.
Name for a non-volatile rewritable storage medium.
Formerly known as aniline printing, a rotation relief printing process which uses flexible printing plates and thin, fast-drying printing inks.
In fluorescence, the light is radiated between 10 to the power of minus 7 and 70 to the power of minus ten seconds
Barcodes in all densities can be produced in filmsetting.
Frequency (f) refers to the number of events (n) in a specific time period (T), e.g. the number of oscillations in a radio signal per second. Frequency is measured in Hertz.
Accomplishment of physical supplies
An RFID gate is an arrangement of multiple RFID antennas which communicate with an RFID reader with the help of a multiplexer. When the RFID transponder data is being captured, opposite antenna pairs are switched on. The appropriate number of antennas must be set up according to the reading range and the size of the RFID gate.
Paper quality in which the surface to be printed is given a white or coloured coating.
Unused upper material, including the adhesive in a self-adhesive construction, which surrounds the cut-out label is usually removed once the label has been printed and cut out to allow the labels to be dispensed automatically.
The global positioning system (GPS) is a satellite-supported navigation system for defining positions worldwide, operated by the United States Department of Defense. GPS replaced the older Transit satellite navigation system of the United States Navy.
Coating applied to a label material to improve the anchoring of the adhesive or printing ink.
Abbreviation for global tag. Internationally coordinated EAN - RFID standard.
Type of adhesive which is actively self-adhesive, in contrast to wet adhesives. Adheres through simple contact at room temperature.
The connection between the three basic elements – upper material, adhesive layer and covering material or substrate – forms the self-adhesive label, also called an adhesive bond by manufacturers.
Umbrella term for wireless, hand-held computers
Name for a computer integrated as a higher-level system in a computer hierarchy.
The 13-digit international location number (ILN) identifies physical and functional companies and parts of companies. The ILN has a standardised format and its structure allows each location number to be identified worldwide uniquely and unmistakeably.
Inkjet printers work with special inkjet ink which is sprayed onto the substrate through jets.
An inlay is an RFID microchip which is connected to an RFID antenna. A plastic film is usually used as the substrate. These unfinished RFID inlays are then sold to manufacturers of RFID labels, who then turn the RFID inlays into smart labels.
Name for the dialogue between a person and a machine with the help of speech-controlled computer systems.
13-digit EAN number for the unique identification of locations (warehouse, delivery points, etc.).
Abbreviation for 'Internet protocol telephony'. Speech signals are not transmitted via telephone lines but via the Internet in digital data packages. Making calls in the Future Store does not work via the conventional telephone network but via a local wireless network (WLAN).
Perfectly timed delivery of supplies in order to make storage largely or completely unnecessary at the point of need.
Fluidity of the adhesive at room temperature under pressure and load.
Point-of-sale systems are used to process transactions with the end customer. As well as actually taking the money (registration, discounting, financing), services with direct allocation of customer data (selection, exchange, complaints, lending, modification etc.) are increasingly in demand. Modern point-of-sale systems are open PC-based systems whose enormous computing and saving power also allows optimisation of further branch processes.
Adhesive which remains on a substrate when the label is removed.
Intrinsic strength of an adhesive
Compilation of individual items in an order.
Key performance indicators, key figures which place basic figures in context to provide easy-to-understand information. Common KPIs include turnover performance, productivity, efficiency and profitability.
Usually provided in the form of terminals in branches, allowing information about the delivery status or items to be called up.
Applying a lacquer layer gives labels a protective and/or decorative shiny coating.
Application of a transparent film to the surface of a label, for example, to provide additional protection and a better appearance.
Non-impact printing process with hot or cold fixing.
Common information given for papers, referring to the alignment of the paper fibres parallel to the direction of movement of the paper machine. It is especially significant for printing and processing in label manufacture.
Folding method for laying long paper or film strips in piles in zigzag form (instead of rolling). Used for example for labels used in IT.
Also called a reader, send/receive unit or read/write device. Antenna which transmits to the transponders and reads its data. Most reading devices are also writing devices. They can use radio signals to save data to writable transponders.
The decoding, extraction and depiction of the actual data content which is transmitted by the transponder in addition to the bits for format definition, monitoring and error management.
The maximum speed at which data can be read from a transponder, expressed in bits or bytes per second.
This is the maximum distance over which the antenna of a read/write device and a transponder can communicate effectively. The reading range can be influenced by the alignment to the antenna and by ambient conditions, for example.
All books in libraries are marked with a barcode. The library user has a card with a barcode. All borrowings and returns run via the computer.
Resistance of a material, e.g. a self-adhesive label, against the solvent effect of certain organic solutions.
The light element between two bars in a barcode
A transparent printing ink which becomes visible under UV light.
Uneven colouring or coating of upper materials, uneven printed image on a label.
Dot matrix (impact) printers are generally called needle printers. The print is applied to the substrate using small needles. The printing ink contained in the ink ribbons is 'impressed' mechanically, achieving especially good anchoring on the label surface.
Mobile data capture unit, also called hand-held device or hand scanner.
Plastic films or papers which have been given a very thin metal/aluminium layer on one side using a vacuum vaporisation process.
Part of the RFID system which connects the reading device to the back end.
Data terminal in which the data captured is saved locally and then transmitted to a base station in a batch. In contrast to a wireless terminal, an MDT works offline rather than online.
The thinnest element in a barcode is called a module. Wide bars or spaces are calculated as multiples of the module.
Gives the width of the thinnest element e.g.: X = 0.33 mm.
A multiplexer is used to operate multiple antennas on one RFID reader. A sequence can be set in which the antennas are activated and switched off again. In general, two opposite antennas are activated. Using a multiplexer prevents antennas from disrupting each other and reduces costs for the RFID readers needed to cover the field without multiplexers. This allows the user to reduce the costs of the RFID system.
The printing ink contained in the ink ribbons is 'impressed' mechanically, achieving especially good anchoring to the label surface
Adhesive based on natural rubber. Generally a solvent adhesive with a broad application spectrum.
RFID systems which work in near field are called NFC systems. The radius of the near field is determined by the frequency and wavelength used.
The decoder is unable to decode the information read
Labelling of packaging containers with materials which are as transparent as possible, giving the impression of direct printing.
The possible read distance, i.e. the distance at which the transponder can be reliably read.
An item unit or loading aid whose barcode or RFID tag could not be read.
Serial numbering (printing) of labels through a mechanical or non-impact printing process.
Number of labels on a sheet or printing plate
Shipping unit number (Nummer der Versandeinheit): The NVE was developed for the uniform identification of individual transportation containers. It supports working processes in delivery, distribution and goods receipt with non-standardised packaging.
The electronic charge created on plastic surfaces by appropriate pre-treatment (flame treatment, corona treatment)
Substrate which is coated with adhesive and later printed and adhered. It can be made from various materials, such as paper, film etc.
Flat screen printing process in which the material to be printed is printed indirectly by the printing plate via a rubber blanket.
Out-of-stock: The best marketing strategies and supply chain concepts are no use if the customer is ultimately unable to buy his product when he wants, in the quantity he wants, where he wants. If this is the case, the goods are out of stock.
Lack of transparency of a material
Company functions (e.g. warehouse) are transferred to external service providers.
When the individual colours in multicolour printing are printed exactly on top of each other or the printed labels are cut fitting exactly.
In contrast to active transponders, passive transponders do not have their own energy supply. They are fed from external sources and typically draw their energy from the carrier signal emitted by the reading device.
Punched line to make it easier to tear or fold labels. The tearing force depends on the ratio of cuts to bridges.
Permanent adhesive with relatively high final adhesion. It sticks fast to most surfaces and can therefore not usually be removed without harm.
A personal digital assistant (PDA) is also known as a mobile assistant. It is a wireless, hand-held computer for staff, equipped with a barcode reading device or mobile RFID reading unit. It offers access to goods flow systems (warehouse stock, next delivery etc.). Staff can also use the PDA to send and receive e-mails.
Small mobile computer with a touchscreen and barcode scanner. Acts as a 'shopping consultant' giving customers additional information. The consumer scans the products himself and finds the final price at check-out.
Name for a sandwich bond
Name for the position of the sheet on the printing table. 100% flatness: the sheet is lying evenly on the substrate, all points in the material surface are on one level.
Point of sale in a sales establishment, such as tills in sales branches, web shops etc.
Polarisation describes the alignment of an electromagnetic wave. There is linear and circular polarisation. Linear polarised waves can be aligned vertically or horizontally.
Premium synthetic film with excellent resistance to solvents, oils and many chemicals.
Polyethylene film is seen as a more environmentally-friendly alternative to PVC, because it releases only carbon dioxide and water when burned. Allows single-variety recycling.
Connection of many small molecules (monomers) to form a very large molecule, chemical basis of all materials known as plastics.
Similar properties to polyethylene, but the material is stronger and stiffer. Aligned i.e. stretched polypropylene has extremely good dimensional stability.
Polystyrene films have greater hardness and stiffness than other films. They can be supplied glass-clear or white.
A process with which a printed image can be elevated or depressed (as relief).
Coating to improve the adhesion of an adhesive or printing ink on upper materials.
Cards with a range of 7 to 15 cm are called proximity coupling cards in accordance with ISO 14443. Proximity cards communicate at a frequency of 13.56 MHz.
To improve reading certainty, a check digit can be added to a barcode in addition to the useful characters. Some barcode types have a compulsory check digit.
Almost simultaneous recording of multiple transponders by a reading device. Because of impedance due to collisions, the transponders are not captured at exactly the same time, but in very quick succession. See also 'Anti-collision'
Flexible and durable plastic film with good weather and chemical resistance. The film is available in shiny, matt, transparent and coloured versions.
Frequently used special colours are compiled in these colour scales.
Even division of an area into lines or dots.
The reading device which records the data on the transponders, for example. This occurs via radio waves.
The force measured in a tensile test at which the sample tears. It depends on the thickness of the sample and is measured in N/mm².
The release value is determined by the adhesive and the siliconisation in particular. Especially when the labels are dispensed mechanically, easier repellence has been proven in the past. It is measured as the separating force needed to pull off the silicone paper behind the adhesive-coated upper material.
Marginal perforation (transport perforation) in the substrate. (cf. Perforated edge labels)
RFID is a technology for contactless data transmission on the physical basis of electromagnetic alternating fields, i.e. radio waves. The core of RFID technology is an RFID transponder. This tiny computer chip with an antenna is applied to various objects and contains a numerical code, such as the electronic product code (EPC, see entry). The numerical code is read using a reading device.
RFID tags are also called transponders. They consist of a chip with a simple integrated processor, antenna and associated memory. A wide range of forms is possible, e.g. as coins, discs, labels, stickers, plastic cards, keyrings etc. RFID tags are divided into active and passive transponders.
All tools which rotate and are used for cutting in label printing machines.
The light zone in front of and after the barcode. The quiet zone R is necessary to set the reading equipment to the barcode. The minimum is 10 times module width X, no less than 2.5 mm. In scanner applications with a large depth of focus, the quiet zone must be larger – R = 15 times module width X, no less than 6.5 mm.
Three-layer self-adhesive construction in which, once the top two layers are adhered, the top label can be removed and re-adhered
In RFID: an electronic device which can send and receive radio waves. If it is combined with a digital signal processor which converts the waves into information bits, the scanner is called a reader. In barcodes: general name for a device which has an integrated laser scanner. These devices can be stationary or mobile. Scanners convert optical information into electrical signals and transmit these to a computer for subsequent decoding. The antenna, transmitter (or exciter) and receiver are integral parts of the scanner.
Resistance of an adhesive to static loads (weight) at the level of the label material.
Unwanted detachment of label corners from the adhered surface.
In many applications, the transponder must remain on the object to be identified when data on the transponder is saved or modified. Transponders with this function can be re-programmed and are called read/write transponders, memory cards or storage modules. Read/write devices are used to call up the information from tags and save information in the tag store. In this, a general differentiation is made between stationary read/write units (e.g. in a gate) and mobile read/write devices (MDE, handheld).
The speed at which data is transmitted to a transponder, written to the memory of the transponder and verified as correct. The speed is given as the average number of bits or bytes transferred per second until the transaction has been fully executed.
Consignment data exchange system (Sendungsdaten-Austausch System)
A barcode which allows each character to be checked in accordance with a prescribed algorithm. Self-checking barcodes are inherently safe. This means that a change to a character is recognised as an error and prevents reading. Two simultaneous contradictory modifications within a character and scan line may lead to incorrect reading due to substitution. The substitution error can be recognised using a check digit.
A device which reacts to a physical stimulus and produces an electronic signal. See also 'Scanner'.
Label which cannot be counterfeited. Term for a wide range of different labels which have special properties intended to protect against theft or make products more difficult to counterfeit.
Printing process in which the ink is pressed onto the material to be printed through a fine-meshed fabric.
Material coated with silicone. It ensures that both the labels and the matrix can be removed easily.
A stockkeeping unit is an identification number in warehouse management. Each product in the warehouse is give an SKU by the dealer. This SKU is then used to order a product from the warehouse, define the location and manage the stock. Each product and each product variant has its own SKU, such as for different colours or models.
A smart label is a combination of a barcode label and a passive RFID tag.
Smart shelves are intelligent shelves equipped with RFID reading devices. They can automatically record goods which have been placed incorrectly. Vacancies or out-of-stock situations can also be prevented, since the number of items available on the shelf is recognised. If required, the system can automatically inform a member of staff that the specific item needs to be restocked on the shelf.
A reprogrammable transponder or transponder with read/writeability, often the size of a credit card
Device for automatic or manual labelling
Master data refers to a static part of the files managed in the warehouse management system. This data is not changed by processes in the warehouse and is therefore called static. It is subject to its own management functions within the master data management. These functions affect the input of new sets, modifications to existing and output of all or part of the data stock. Master data is required for items, loading aids, storage areas, employees, equipment etc. in warehouse management.
Flexible die for use on magnetic cylinders, magnetic foundations or other special equipment.
Cutting or press cutting labels using a strip-steel cutting tool or rotating die cutter.
Every barcode starts with a start character and ends with a stop character. This generally allows readability in two directions and recognition of the barcode type.
The dark part of a barcode
Most common codes are based on a binary principle with a number of thin and thick bars/spaces. The sequence of these thin and thick bars and spaces results in a specific numerical or even alphanumerical statement. It is read optically. The different reflections of the black bars and white spaces creates a train of pulses in the optical receiver which corresponds to this sequence of bars and spaces.
The barcode field consists of a barcode, two light quiet zones and a line of text. The barcode contains the encrypted information, consisting of coloured bars and non-coloured spaces. The quiet zone is located before and after the barcode and demarcates the object to be identified. The text line is under the barcode and depicts all the encrypted information in legible text
A character is replaced by another valid character. This substitution error can only be almost excluded by using a check digit.
Coordination of all logistical processes and functions within the supply chain from the supplier to the consumer with the aim of shorter delivery times and lower costs.
Initial tack: adhesive strength of a label to a surface without pressure.
Tag is a common name for the RFID transponder
Transponder for single use, which can be laminated onto labels, stickers and tickets.
Product name for hanging labels.
Devices for reading and writing RFID transponders are called terminals. There are also mobile terminals.
In direct thermal printing, the thermal pulses from the thermal head are transmitted to thermo-reactive paper. There they trigger a chemical colour reaction in the special thermal layer of the adhesive bond.
Thermal transfer printing uses transfer films coated with ink. This layer of ink is transferred through the thermal effect of a heating element. A particular feature of thermal transfer printing is therefore the extensive ink application, which leads to outstanding print quality.
Printing process in which printing elements are depressed (engraved, etched) into the printing cylinder
Adhesive which guarantees good adhesion for a self-adhesive label on a cold substrate
Parcel transportation and tracking in parcel delivery services. The customer can use this to gain information about the status of his order and shipping at any time.
A measurement of how much light a sample allows through.
Abbreviation for 'TRANSceive and resPOND'. This is a coinage from the terms transmitter and responder (other common names include RFID labels and tags).
Invisible transponder integration in a label (see also tag-it transponder). Features: reading and writing without contact or visual contact
The space between the last bar of a character and the first bar of the next character in a discrete barcode.
Coating applied to the substrate to allow simple separation between adhesive masses.
Uniform Code Council. A non-profit organisation which oversees the universal product code. It emerged from the UPCC (Uniform Product Code Council), which in turn was formed from the UGPCC (Uniform Grocery Product Code Council). It is the predecessor organisation of GS1.
Temperature and humidity conditions in the ambient air
Use of RFID transponders at the carrier level (e.g. palettes).
Abbreviation for universal product code. This is the North American barcode standard which is overseen by the GS1 (previously UCC).
Resistance of a self-adhesive label against UV light (sunlight), hardening of the adhesive, strong discolouration or weathering.
A protective lacquer which protects the print from wear and external influences such as chemical substances. However, UV lacquer does not protect print from UV radiation. UV only means that the lacquer is hardened with UV radiation in the print machine.
RFID transponders usually only transmit data in plain text. Some models also transmit data encrypted.
Vicinity cards are cards in accordance with ISO 15693. This standard describes chip cards with a reach of up to a metre. The cards work at 13.56 MHz. Energy is supplied through induction from the reading device's alternating field. The card contains a large antenna coil. In accordance with ISO 7810, the cards are precisely 85.72 mm x 54.03 mm x 0.76 mm.
Abbreviation for 'vendor-managed inventory'. Instrument for improving the logistics chain. This allows the supplier to access the customer's stock levels. The supplier is responsible for maintaining the prescribed stock levels.
Special or spot colours which are not created from a four-colour scale (CMYK) and are compiled in a colour chart such as Pantone, HKS or RAL.
Substance which is added to some plastics, mainly PVC, to make then more flexible, malleable and ductile.
Resistance of a freshly printed ink on paper or film surfaces against smearing or smudging.
Ability of an adhered label to withstand the influences of water, sunlight, varying temperatures and dampness when used outdoors.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a local computer network which works wirelessly. High frequency radio waves are used instead of cables to transfer data.
Merchandise information system
Abbreviation for 'eXtensible Markup Language'. Widespread standard language for distributing information on intranets or the Internet and between applications. The key is the separation between the content on one side and formatting and layout on the other.
Additional area of use for RFID technology
Folding method for laying long paper or film strips in piles in zigzag form (instead of rolling). Used for example for labels used in IT
Additional area of use for RFID technology
Property of a material which allows it to withstand tensile force. In practice, it is given with the force which must be applied parallel to the level of the material until this breaks under specified conditions.
Number of correct readings in two or more reading attempts, divided by the number of reading attempts.